Health Insurance Terms Exposed

Health Insurance Terms Exposed

Does health insurance terminology seem like a foreign language to you? Does your mind go blank when you hear words like co-pay, deductible, and out-of-pocket expenses? If you’re nodding your head in agreement, welcome to the club. There are many other people like you who are confounded by insurance and treat it like it’s a necessary evil. However, if you’re letting the insurance company or your medical provider dictate your insurance coverage because you don’t understand your policy, you might be depriving yourself of benefits or coverage you’re entitled to receive. Knowing your insurance policy and its terminology is an advantage you do not want to ignore since it could cost you some precious dollars and possibly medical care.

A simple way to look at health insurance terminology would be to separate it into two categories: 1) Costs; and 2) Medical Coverage. Familiarizing yourself with the vocabulary used in your policy will help you to understand your financial obligations and coverage rights. In fact, starting with the following ten terms might provide you with enough insight to help you manage your health coverage more effectively.

Need to Know Costs

  • Premium – The amount paid for insurance coverage. A premium can be paid monthly or quarterly, or even annually, depending on the preference of the policy owner. The premium is separate from the out-of-pocket expenses such as deductible, coinsurance, and annual out-of-pocket maximum
  • Deductible – The amount paid by the policy owner for a medical service covered by an insurance policy. After the deductible is reached (for example, $6,000 for a single person), the insurance company pays an agreed portion of each expense; until the out-of-pocket amount is reached. Keep in mind that the deductible amount affects an insurance premium. The inverse relationship results in higher the deductible, the lower the premium; the lower the deductible, the higher the premium.
  • Coinsurance – Percentage of covered services that the policy owner and insurer pay. Coinsurance is applied after the annual deductible is has been met. For example, our $6,000 deductible with an out-of-pocket maximum of $7,400, you receive a $ 23,000 hospital bill. Insurance negotiated rate is $8,000. You pay the first $6,000 (deductible). Coinsurance may be 80/20- so the insurer would pay the next $1,600 (80% of remainder), and you would pay $400 (20% of remainder, after deductible).
  • Co-Payment – A fixed dollar amount paid for an in-network covered service. Examples of co-pays include the fee paid for a doctor appointment ($35 for specialist) and prescriptions ($10 co-pay).
  • Annual Out-of-Pocket Maximum – The maximum amount of money paid by the insured over a policy year. The expenses applied usually include copayments, deductibles, and co-insurance. Once met, all covered in-networkservices should be paid by the insurer at 100% for the remainder of the calendar year.

Need to Know Coverage

  • Referral – Necessary with HMO coverage to obtain from Primary Care Physician to see a specialist, have an MRI, and to receive other services.
  • Preauthorization – The primary care doctor or specialist submits a request to the insurance company for preauthorization for certain medical services (MRI, time in a hospital, etc.). Although issued by the insurance company; it still does not guarantee they will pay for the service. However, failure to obtain one in a non-emergency situation (say you have an MRI at your doctor’s office which did not obtain the necessary preauthorization) could make you responsible for up to 100% of the procedure’s cost.
  • Exclusion or Limitation – Exclusion refers to services or supplies the insurance company will not approve; for example, cosmetic plastic surgery may be a policy exclusion. A limitation is a similar clause, setting forth exceptions to coverage, with specific qualifications. Traditionally, limitations are in connection with PRE-EXISTING CONDITIONS. If you have an: “Obamacare” policy you need not worry about these while the Affordable Care Act is law. PLEASE read these clauses CAREFULLY—they can have disastrous results.
  • Denial – Refusal by the insurance company to approve a service or pay a claim.
  • Allowed Amount – Agreed upon amount an insurance company will pay a provider for specified medical services or supplies.

Informed Decision-Maker

 When you are an informed decision-maker, you are better prepared to make smart choices regarding medical care and insurance options. You will be taking care of yourself and your family members health, finances, provided you manage your insurance benefits wisely. However, despite best efforts, sometimes we need assistance. With medical matters, seeking assistance from patient advocates like Human Health Advocates leverages expertise in areas including insurance benefits, medical billing (including hospitals bills), and health insurance coverage denials.

Human Health Advocates, LLC, located in Boca Raton Florida, serves clients both statewide and throughout the nation. It is a very favorably reviewed entity and accredited by the Better Business Bureau with an A+ Rating. Its members are Board-Certified Patient Advocates who specialize in medical debt reduction. If you are having difficulty understanding or managing your medical bills and/or health insurance Explanation of Benefits (EOB’s), reach out and contact one of our Board-Certified Patient Advocates. We review medical bills and health insurance determinations to locate errors in providers’ charges and processing.  We prepare insurance appeals for denied claims. We negotiate reductions in your medical debt from hospitals and other medical providers. If you have problems with your medical bills or health insurance, get in touch. WE CAN HELP!

By Human Health Advocates

Know Your Health Insurance Policy

Know Your Health Insurance Policy

Health insurance provides us with a sense of security. We believe it equips us financially to manage health issues from minor to major medical emergencies. But does insurance really secure and protect us? If you don’t know the extent of your medical coverage or your financial obligations, then your sense of protection regarding medical preparedness could be misplaced. You owe it to yourself, your health, and financial well-being to know exactly where you stand with your health insurance. Actually, it’s your responsibility to know and understand your health insurance policy because you should know what to expect and perhaps even demand what to receive.

Insurance Basics

          Having health insurance is not the same as coverage. There are numerous insurance companies, and each offers different types of policies which result in a diversity of coverage limits and costs. Familiarizing yourself with the way your policy works enables you to know the extent and cost of care you, or a family member, are entitled to receive. Also, keep in mind that your insurance policy is a contractual agreement between you and the insurer. If you’re looking for help from anyone to decipher coverage and costs, don’t just turn to the insurance company, but, contact your insurance agent or human resources representative (if you are insured through your employer) to answer your questions. If you need immediate or further assistance understanding your health insurance and financial obligations, then a health advocate could be instrumental in helping you.


Plan Options

          The cost of a health insurance policy (i.e., monthly premium) might be the primary criteria that most people use when selecting coverage. Rather than evaluate insurance on its premium fee, instead, it is more sensible to consider the type of health insurance plan you have when evaluating your policy, as well. Plans vary in scope of coverage and flexibility:

  • HMO – Health Maintenance Organization. A good plan if you’re looking for lower out-of-pocket expenses, but little flexibility in the choices of doctors or medical facilities due to limited networks. Selecting a Primary Care Physician (PCP) is required and will issue a referral to a specialist when necessary. There are no benefits for services provided by an out-of-network provider.
  • PPO – Preferred Provider Organization. This plan offers greater flexibility with selecting physicians, and a PCP is not required. Referrals from a physician for a specialist are not required, but some services may require pre-authorization. Doctors, hospitals, and other providers in the plan’s preferred provider list must be utilized in order to take advantage of the lower negotiated rates between insurer and provider.
  • EPO – Exclusive Provider Organization. A combination of HMO and PPO. Like a PPO, doctors are selected from a preferred providers list, and referrals to a specialist are not required. However, there are no benefits for services provided by an out-of-network provider.

Plan Coverage

Next, take a look at your plan to assess whether it meets your personal and family needs. You might already know what type of health insurance plan you have, but if you don’t, take a look at your insurance card for a quick reference. Hopefully, you have a copy of your health insurance policy so you can review your Summary of Benefits. The information in the summary serves as a quick reference guide about your coverage. This summary differs from the Policy Booklet, which is an extensive and detailed explanation of the policy.

The Summary of Benefits presents the scope of coverage concisely and is a useful reference if you want to compare your plan with another one. You’ll be able to assess whether your needs will be met. However, before you start reviewing your plan, you might want to know some key insurance terms:

  • In-Network vs. Out-of-Network:

In-Network: Doctors and hospitals included in a preferred provider list approved by the insurer. These “preferred providers” have negotiated rates, or “allowed amounts,” which provides the insured a discount on covered services.  

Fees for Out-of-Network: Physicians, facilities, or services are not subject to the negotiated allowed amount rates, which can cost you sustainably more.

  • Referral vs. Pre-authorization:

Referrals are provided by a primary care doctor (PCP) to an in-network specialist that will continue care for a specific condition, and insurance company approval is required.

Pre-authorizations are for specific procedures, treatments, or services which may require pre-approval from the insurance company in order to be covered.

  • ACA vs. Non-ACA Coverage:

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), derogatorily referred to as Obamacare Plans, cannot deny coverage based on pre-existing conditions. Which means major pre-existing conditions like diabetes, heart disease/stroke, cancer, COPD, or HIV must be covered under these plans. However, non-ACA plans can and will deny coverage for pre-existing conditions.

The odds of finding one perfect plan for you and your family are not likely. Although it is possible to find a plan that best suits your existing needs, it just takes a little time and research to choose a plan that satisfies cost, coverage, and flexibility. PPOs are good if you prefer the most flexibility, and an HMO or EPO can save you some money on costs. The goal is to assess your specific needs and preferences, then select a policy that is right for your situation.

Human Health Advocates, LLC, located in Boca Raton Florida, serves clients both statewide and throughout the nation. It is a very highly reviewed entity and accredited by the Better Business Bureau with an A+ rating. Its members are Board-Certified Patient Advocates who specialize in medical debt reduction. If you are having difficulty understanding or managing your medical bills and/or health insurance Explanation of Benefits (EOB’s), reach out…..get help… one of our Board-Certified Patient Advocates. We review medical bills and health insurance determinations to locate errors in providers’ charges and insurer’s processing.  We prepare insurance appeals for denied claims. We negotiate reductions in your medical debt from hospitals and other medical providers. If you have problems with your medical bills or health insurance, get in touch. WE CAN HELP!



The next time you’re at your doctor’s office, make sure to request an itemized bill when you leave. Why? You’ll want to scrutinize your doctor’s bill to check for “facility fees,” excess charges which have now become a common practice. The high cost of medical care is common knowledge, but not much has been discussed about facility fee charges which can add hundreds and, possibly, thousands to your doctor’s bill.

Facility fees are the result of hospital-based healthcare organizations purchasing doctors’ practices and outpatient centers. This transforms previously privately-owned entities into employees and hospital-owned treatment centers. So, as a result, when a medical practice is purchased by a healthcare organization, a $500 treatment, formerly performed by a private practitioner for example, could multiply to $1,500, $3,000, or more. So, where can you expect to find facility fee charges? Individual physicians’ offices for one as well as outpatient surgery centers, urgent care centers, and outpatient medical centers.

How to fight facility fees? One of the best ways to fight against facility fees is information. Inquiring about facility fee charges before you get treatment at your doctor’s office or at an outpatient center is one recommendation. Another way to protect yourself against facility fees is with the guidance of a medical billing advocate who can help you with hospital bills. Advocacy firms like Human Health Advocates, which specialize in medical debt reduction, through bill review and reconciliation, insurance appeals, and negotiation, etc., can be among your best resources for assistance in obtaining reductions in your medical debt.


Getting sucked into a situation where you could be charged a facility fee can happen unexpectedly through the doctor referral process. If your primary care physician is an employee of a hospital, and you need an MRI, you would be referred to an orthopedist who is a practitioner at a hospital-owned facility. Your MRI would then be performed through the hospital’s imaging services. If surgery is needed, the procedure could be scheduled at a surgical center the hospital owns. All related costs would all be subject to facility fees, which could greatly increase your out of pocket expenses. So, from an estimated $5,000, if treatments had been performed by independent practitioners, fees could soar up to as much as $35,000. On top of this, private insurers might not be willing to pay the added-on expenses.

Don’t Let This Happen to You

Examples of inflated pricing through facility fee charges were reported by publications as early as 2014. One of these appeared in an article presented by The Center for Public Integrity which recounted the following experiences:

  • A surgical center in Iowa City charged $25,872 for the removal of three polyps during a 45-minute stay.
  • In Davie, Florida, a $275 facility fee was added to a $233 doctor bill for the treatment of a dog bite. The 8-year-old girl had received antibiotic gel and a bandage.

Another example documenting the inflated pricing of facility fees appeared recently in a June 2019 Consumer Reports article which reported:

  • A Los Angeles hospital added a $1,300 hospital operating fee for a patient who had received an exam, X-ray, and cortisone injection for a 30-minute doctor appointment

These cases indicate vigilance is needed to avoid these types of fees or a fight against them when they do occur. With only one-third of U.S. doctors categorized as having private practices, that leaves the balance of medical practitioners as employees of hospital-based healthcare organizations. It’s likely many of us will need to know how to fight against facility fees. The next issue of our blog will feature some recommendations which could be useful in minimizing or eliminating some of the surplus cost – saving you hundreds and maybe even thousands of dollars.

Do you feel you have been a victim of inflated pricing? Contact Human Health Advocates today for a free consultation.

By Guest Blogger: Mary Ann Mace

Emergency Room Patients Routinely Overcharged—Greatest Effect on the Uninsured

Emergency Room Patients Routinely Overcharged—Greatest Effect on the Uninsured

A Johns Hopkins study of billing records for more than 12,000 emergency room doctors across the country showed a wide variance in prices. On average, adult patients are charged 340% more than the Medicare rate (amounts Medicare pays each facility for like services, plus the deductible and co-insurance). These rates are lower than in-network health insurance rates—which generally are contracted at 1.6-2.0 times the Medicare allowable rate. The study covered a wide variety of services from CT scans to simple stiches for a small cut.

A very distressing finding of the study was that most hospitals charged minorities and patients that are uninsured substantially higher rates, than commercial insurance and Medicare allowable rates. These huge disparities in emergency room prices poses a serious problem to millions in the U.S.

Surveys of both emergency room physicians and general internal medicine physicians’ charges were analyzed. The resulting service bills’ markup ratios were staggering: Emergency Room doctors had an average markup of 4.4 times Medicare allowable-while the Internists’ charges averaged 2.1 times Medicare allowable; less than half. However, due to a ubiquitous lack of patient-friendly regulation and unfettered and unrestrained greed—some emergency room physicians charged between 1.0-12.6 times what Medicare allows. ($1000-$12,600). This “gap” cannot be attributed solely to the quality of hospital or doctor performance (given the variations within each institution).Besides, who is thinking of that in the ambulance? This disparity cannot be explained by equipment used(a CT machine is a CT machine).Thus, presumably more so than any other hospital department, emergency rooms were guilty for charging up to 12 times more than what Medicare paid for the same services. There is a clear bias, however, toward for-profit hospitals charging more than non-profits.

The population affected most greatly by these practices are more likely to be located in the Southeastern and Midwestern U.S., serving a population of African-Americans and Hispanics that are uninsured. These uninsured patients are often charged FULL CHARGEMASTER rates. It gets worse. Once receiving a bill for services calculated at 12 times Medicare allowable, the billing departments are often aggressive about collecting amounts 8-12 times higher than from most other patients.

Often, the uninsured will receive no discount on their bill. (Several hospitals first seek to have the patient apply for financial assistance—and, if qualified, may receive discounts through that route). Some hospitals are terribly rigid, setting up roadblocks to negotiating reductions to this medical debt. Billing personnel will not even identify their last names. Managers are difficult to identify-generally not listed on the website. A more transparent, interactive approach could go a long way to addressing this problem. Some have a very “quick trigger” as to when to send a patient to collections. The effect that medical debt-particularly debt inflated to 10.0 times the pricing at a comparable facility can have negative life-changing repercussions. The uninsured bear the brunt of such practices –although certainly not alone. Forty-three (43%) percent of the population has medical debt listed on their credit report. Medical debt is the largest driver of individual bankruptcies in the U.S.

 In 2003, the eighty (80) plus hospitals owned by Tenet was the subject of a lawsuit involving this precise topic—that was characterized as “Price-Gouging the Uninsured. To its credit, it softened its policy toward collections against those unable to pay; including discontinuing placing liens on the homes of such patients. Currently, it still offers automatic discounts for the uninsured in certain situations—with payment plans on discounted amounts (although its preference is to do so prior to the patient’s discharge).

The need for state and federal regulation to address hospital rates in order to protect patients becomes more pressing each day. If you have such an experience, write a letter to the hospital Administrator—copy its CEO and the state agency governing hospitals (despite that in some cases, it will not take jurisdiction of billing matters), call your congress person and senators(both state and Federal). Contact NPR and other news organizations. Silence will not result in change. Bringing this to the attention of those with decision-making authority might.

If you think you’ve been overcharged, or otherwise need help with your medical bills and health insurance matters– contact a Board Certified Patient Advocate at Human Health Advocates of Boca Raton, FL. WE ARE HERE TO HELP!

Reduce your out-of-pocket costs by staying In-Network with your health insurance plan

Reduce your out-of-pocket costs by staying In-Network with your health insurance plan

Did you know that you can save yourself a lot of time, frustration, and MONEY by being an
informed patient? You may be asking yourself “how?” The healthcare system, especially the
medical billing and health insurance aspects, are extremely complex and confusing. However, with
a little advance planning, you can reduce or eliminate endless phone calls to representatives that
are unwilling or unable to help you resolve the problem. Advance planning is also very likely to
help you save money on medical expenses. In this series of blog posts, we will give you the
necessary tools to help you make informed decisions and ultimately save you money.

What is a Health Insurance Network and Why Does it Matter?

Every hospital, free-standing facility, and physician has what is called a chargemaster rate. This
rate is typically an inflated amount related to the services that were performed during your visit.
These chargemaster rates are different among the various providers. The chargemaster rate for
an emergency room visit due to the flu might be $1,200 with Hospital A while Hospital B’s rate is
$1,800. Why is this important?

Literally, no one pays the full chargemaster rate. If you are uninsured or underinsured- you are
expected to pay this full rate. However, in most cases, a reduction can be obtained (be on the
lookout for a future blog post to explore this further).

Health Insurance Companies and Providers (hospitals, physicians, facilities, etc.) work together
to negotiate rates for every service, procedure, and supply called “allowed amounts.” This
agreement between a health insurance company and multiple contracted providers is what
creates the NETWORK. Doctors, hospitals, and other providers that do not have a contract with
the insurer are “out-of-network. IF YOU STAY IN-NETWORK amounts billed are radically less
than the chargemaster rate for covered services. Again—that is IF you stay in-network! When
you see a network provider, you are protected by the negotiated rates between the provider and
health insurance company. The provider cannot bill you more than the contracted allowed
amount for services covered by your health insurance plan. This does not apply to non-covered
or exclusionary services.

In some cases, such as having an HMO/EPO plan, out-of-network charges are not paid at all by
the insurance- leaving you with astronomically high medical bills. In other cases, your health
insurance company may make a small payment but, you are left with the remaining balance which can be substantial. Below you will find clear examples of the difference in costs from seeing an in-network vs. out-of-network provider for the same service.


Beth recently received a breast cancer diagnosis. Her primary care physician refers
her to a highly respected oncologist at a local cancer center. Without checking with her
insurance company, Beth schedules an appointment for an initial exam.

Here is an example of difference between the out-of-pocket cost had the oncologist been in-network vs out-of-network:


The Oncologist’s chargemaster rate for Beth’s initial exam: $550.00

The in-network health insurance allowed amount (based on the annual cost-sharing
accumulation): $200.00

The negotiated in-network discount amount: $350.00

The amount you may owe (based on your annual deductible, copay, and out of pocket
maximum): $200.00
**The in-network provider cannot charge you more than the negotiated rate for covered

The out-of-network Oncologist’s chargemaster rate for the initial exam: $550.00

The out-of-network health insurance allowed amount: $100.00

The amount the out-of-network provider may try to collect from you (based on your annual
deductible, copay, and out of pocket maximum): $450.00-$550.00
**The provider is allowed to charge you more than the out-of-network “allowed amount”
as there is no contractual agreement with the health insurer (also known as balance

Beth’s savings by using an in-network provider were $200.00-$300.00


Did you know that using an out-of-network provider is likely the greatest cause of exorbitantly
high medical bills? Providers and patients are not on the same page. Barely a third of doctors
discuss their charges with patients. Unfortunately, it’s the patient’s responsibility to know their
provider’s network status with their health insurance plan. One of the most commonly made
mistakes regarding confirming network status is relying on just the hospital or physician’s office
to provide you with accurate information.

There are many different networks offered by the same health insurer. If you call a provider and
ask, “do you accept Florida Blue?” The answer will almost always be “yes.”** (Florida Blue is the
largest health insurer in Florida)** However, Florida Blue has multiple plans with multiple
networks. Although the doctor or hospital you want to go to might be in-network with the Florida
Blue – Blue Options plan, they may not be in network with your Florida Blue – Blue Select Silver
Plan. A lot of times the physician does not even know which networks they participate in!

In order to verify your provider’s network status, you will need:

• The provider you wish to see’s name, service address, and contact number.

• The NPI (National Provider Identifier) – Contact your provider to request their billing NPI.
Ask if the provider bills the NPI as an individual or as a group. (Organizational healthcare
providers such as hospitals, physician groups, facilities, etc. would submit a claim under
a group NPI).

Once you have the information above, follow this triple-check system to help you avoid
going out-of-network unnecessarily. (Stay tuned for an upcoming blog post regarding
Surprise Medical Bills):

1. Check your health insurance web portal. Every web portal is different based on the
health insurance carrier. Typically, you can search by provider/facility name, specialty,
geographical location, NPI, hospital affiliation and more. If the provider does not
populate in the search results, they are most likely to not be within your plan’s network. If
you are unsure, refer to #2,below.

***NOTE: It is highly recommended that you register for access to your health insurance
web portal, if you haven’t already done so. Most health insurance web portals provide
access to your benefit details, claims submitted by your providers, amounts applied to
deductibles and out-of-pocket maximums, and other valuable resources. TIP-If you
are changing insurance companies, verify how long after separating from the company
you will have access to your information on the internet. Some companies only allow
thirty (30) days—other two (2) years.

2. Call your health insurance company directly at the number on the back of your card.
Give the customer service representative as much information regarding the prospective
provider as possible (name, address, specialty, NPI, etc.).  Ask what the name of your
health insurance network is if you are unsure (see #3).

IMPORTANT: Always ask the customer service representative for a reference number at
the end of the call. Document the representative’s name, date, time,and details of the
call. This information can be extremely helpful if you experience any problems in the
future. For example, your claim could be processed out-of-network when you were
advised the provider was in-network.

3. Verify the network status information you received from your health insurance company
with the provider’s office. Ask for the insurance verification representative at the
provider’s office. Provide them with your Health Insurance Network information and the
details of your call with your health insurance company’s representative. Ask them to
confirm their network status.

4. A provider’s network status may change, sometimes without notice to you. Contracts
between insurers and providers are generally renewed annually (often near the beginning
of the calendar year). Check your established provider’s network status annually to avoid
any surprises.

If you receive conflicting information from either the health insurance company or the
provider’s office, ask to speak with a supervisor to help you clarify the discrepancy. Always
remember to document the name, date, details, and if available, a reference number for
every interaction you have with your health insurance company and providers.

It all boils down to taking a little extra time to verify and confirm your provider’s network
status with your health insurance plan. Ultimately, it is your responsibility to know your
provider’s network status, even in an emergency. Out-of-network, out of luck. Stay in-network, save a buck!

If you are unsure if your medical bills may have been processed out-of-network vs. in-network, or otherwise have trouble with medical billing and health insurance matters, contact one of our Board-Certified Patient Advocates at Human Health Advocates. We can help!

Tips for Your Health Insurance and Medical Bills in 2017 (Part 1)

Tips for Your Health Insurance and Medical Bills in 2017 (Part 1)

by Kenneth Klein, Human Health Advocates

In 2017 brings a new insurance year cycle. There are several things you can do at this time to make your life easier down the road – avoid surprise bills and costs – and ensure that you are maximizing the benefits of your health insurance policy while minimizing the associated costs. For example:

networkcareUse In-Network Providers. Many of us are unaware of the fact that most health insurance policies contain different deductibles and co-pays for in-network providers and out-of-network providers, respectively. The cost of each is drastically different. This is the time to verify that your providers are, in fact, in-network (and, as to ongoing providers, still in-network). Sometimes providers migrate in and out of network based upon their contracts with the insurance companies. I would suggest the following:

• Verify and Document the status of your physicians. Contact each of your physician’s office manager or billing manager and verify that the practice is still in-network for 2017. Make a note of the person with whom you spoke, the date, time, and the substance of the conversation. Also, go to your insurance company website and cross – check by verifying with the tools there. Finally, take the time (yes it will take time but it’s well worth it) to call the customer service number on your health insurance card and get clarification that the provider is in–network. Again, it’s a great practice to take notes – the date, the time, the person with whom you spoke, and the substance of the conversation. Many insurance companies provide a reference number – be sure to ask for one. Each time you schedule an appointment with the provider, and you should “double check” prior to treatment.

Perform the same verification for your pharmacy. Pharmacies also leave and join the insurance company networks. For example, as of January 1, 2017, CVS, which had been – network for Florida Blue will no longer be recognized. Any prescriptions filled there by Florida blue member after that date will surely cost substantially more than those filled at an – network pharmacy.

More valuable tips will follow.

Human Health Advocates wishes each of you a healthy 2017 and beyond.